A major weakness in collective bargaining is the diversity of unions. In a situation of multiple trade union policy, even a recognized trade union union, with long-standing stable and generally positive relations with management, adopts a combative attitude as its conscious strategy. A sample carried out by the Indian employers` organisation for the period 1956-1960 showed that collective agreements were concluded between 32 and 49% in the event of a dispute. Most of the collective agreements have been concluded at the enterprise level. In this context, the National Labour Commission has fully highlighted the progress of the collective agreement. The forms of collective bargaining referred to by Walton and McKersie (1965) (of Armstrong 2012) cite two forms of collective bargaining of distribution and integration. The first looks at the negotiating style in which one party tries to make the most of the negotiations by outsmarting or overpowering the other side. Where, as in the case of inclusive negotiations, the two sides try to find a mutual agreement for the good of both parties. “Integrative conflicts (also known as “interest-based, win-win negotiations”) is a negotiation strategy in which the parties cooperate to find a win-win solution to their dispute. Spangler (2003) “Before independence, collective bargaining as it was known and practiced was virtually unknown in India. It was accepted in principle for the use by the State in relations between trade unions.
Kochan, T. (2012). Collective negotiations: crisis and its consequences for American society. Journal of Industrial Relations, 43 (4), 302-316. dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2338.2012.00680.x This process is called collective bargaining. This process has been used in European and American countries to solve work problems over time. Today, it is used in developing countries such as India, Brazil, South Korea and Malaysia. In 2018, an agreement was reached between United States Steel Corporation and United Steelworkers (USW). It was a four-year contract that will be reviewed in 2022. The agreement included a signing bonus of $4,000 per member, a 14 per cent increase in salaries over four years and an increase in pension contributions. Partnership Agreement: It is a kind of inclusive or cooperative negotiation, in which both parties put their offer on the table and decide on the agreement that benefits both sides.